The Medicines Company, USA 

The model consisted of a realistic lower back made from intrinsically coloured reinforced soft silicone with skin layers (epidermis, dermis, fat and subcutaneous tissues), ligaments, soft tissues, muscle and bone. A midline incision was made over the affecting vertebrae (L5 / S1), retractors inserted and dissection of the soft tissues surrounding the lamina had already been completed. For the purposes of the simulation the lead surgeon had removed the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments, the spinous processes, the lamina and any bone spurs that may have been intruding into the spinal canal to create more space, with less pressure on the nerves. The purpose of the model was to teach students how to gain control of bleeding within a very complex and delicate area of anatomy.